The libro of Job belongs to the books of the Old Testament from the bible. In the Hebrew bible, this text is part of the Writings or Ketuvimlocated in the books poetic and sapientialwritten in the form of poetry and conveying a teaching (from Latin sapientia meaning wisdom).
The Book of Job is a masterpiece of the universal poetry and is one of the oldest extant writings. The author of this text is unknown but wrote a work of great beauty, where he combined a great variety of linguistic and poetic resources, such as dialogue, poetry and metaphors, which made it possible to embellish a story written to teach how to live and show that divine wisdom is in God and that humans do not understand, but we must trust in the Lord and be faithful to Him because He is the way to true wisdom.
The book of Job takes its name from the main character of the story narrated, and its writing is located approximately in the 5th century B.C. at the time of the patriarchs. Today it is believed that this text was written in several stages, where the author bases his story on a very old account to capture a teaching and later parts are added in the story to clarify some incomplete dialogues of the original version.
The main character of this book is JobJob, an exemplary man, of impeccable conduct, faithful to God, who trusted in the Lord in times of great suffering. Job lived in Us, a region outside of Israel, and was a prosperous man, with a family He was a large family who unexpectedly lost his property, his children and suffered a terrible illness, and in spite of all this, he blessed God and always trusted in the Lord.
In the midst of the suffering and lamentations of Job three friends Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar, each one of them gives tips and state their views on the reasons for the calamities Job is suffering. Job responds in each dialogue. The friends think that Job's troubles are the punishment for Job's sins, but this reasoning does not satisfy Job, for he has not committed any sin and trusts in the mercy of the Lord. At the end of these dialogues, another character appears, Elihu, who rebukes Job for his insolence in complaining to God and for the wrongness of his friends' answers.
Elihu glorifies God, expressing the justice and greatness of the Lord and the value of suffering. Finally, God intervenesJob, who teaches that man cannot understand divine reasons and that we must always trust in him. In this part, God reproaches the friends, recognizes Job's faithfulness and restores his prosperity.
This book teaches, through the protagonists, that sin is not the cause of human misfortune and suffering, and that God rewards the good and punishes the bad, but that suffering is a human experience and that in any circumstance the Lord must be trusted, even when we cannot understand his motives.
The outline of the book is:
- Prologue (1-2)
- Job's debate with his three friends (3-27)
- Hymn to wisdom (28.1-28)
- Job's defense (29-31)
- Speeches of Elihu (32-37)
- Speeches of the Lord and Job's answers (38.1-42.6)
- Epilogue (42.7-17)